“…We believe in the self-determination of all peoples…”
~ Marcus Garvey.
What makes some so eager to please? Why is there never a short supply of ‘800’s?
Marcus Mosiah Garvey was a man who lived a life with a mission. Although his journey may have seemed impossible, his never-ending strength and dedication caused many people’s dreams and wishes to become realities.
Garvey advanced several ideas designed to promote social, political and economic freedom for black people, including launching the Black Star Line Steamship Corporation and its successor company the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company. Convinced that uniting black people was the only way to improve their condition, Garvey launched the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA), becoming president. The association sought to unite "all the people of African ancestry of the world into one great body to establish a country and Government absolutely their own." A weekly newspaper, the Negro World, was produced by Garvey to discuss issues related to the UNIA.
"Behind the murder of millions of Negroes annually in Africa is the well organized system of exploitation by the alien intruders who desire to rob Africa of every bit of its wealth for the satisfaction of their race and the upkeep of their bankrupt European countries." - Marcus Garvey
Federal agents, in collaboration with the New York City police, had begun to report on Garvey's speeches as early as 1917. But as Universal Negro Improvement Association membership and the circulation of The Negro World newspaper expanded in 1919, J. Edgar Hoover himself targeted Garvey. Referring to Garvey as a "notorious negro agitator," a young Hoover zealously set about to gather damaging evidence on Garvey and his growing movement. According to historian Theodore Kornweibel, "Hoover and the Justice Department were clearly hooked on a fixation on Garvey which would before long become a vendetta."
Hoover had relied on part-time black informants to track Garvey's movements and U.N.I.A. activities. But in December 1919 his determination to go after Garvey led Hoover to hire the first black agent in the Bureau's history.
The first black agent's name was James Wormley Jones, known as Jack Jones. He was known by the code number "800". "His job," says Kornweibel, "was to go into Harlem and to infiltrate the Garvey movement and to try and find evidence that could be used to build the legal case for ultimately getting rid of Garvey." He engendered the trust of the UNIA leadership to such an extent that he was able to gain responsibility for registering all incoming correspondence. His access to UNIA correspondence along with his position as Adjutant General in the African Legion where essential in enabling his information gathering activities.
Over the next five years, largely under Hoover's direction, Bureau of Investigation officers would report on U.N.I.A. activities in over two dozen cities and pursuit of Garvey would broaden to seven other federal agencies. "They were going to find some way of getting rid of Garvey because they feared his influence," Kornweibel says of Hoover and his government colleagues. "They feared the hundreds of thousands, the masses of blacks under his influence.
According to historian Winston James, "They sabotaged the Black Star Line. The engines... of the ships were actually damaged by foreign matter being thrown into the fuel."
800 was not the only one. Hoover had placed agents closer to Garvey than anyone at the time could have imagined. As he and the U.N.I.A. increasingly came under attack from internal dissenters, black critics, and the federal government, one of the few people Garvey confided in was Herbert Boulin, the owner of a Harlem-based black doll company. What Garvey didn't know is that Boulin was an informant for J. Edgar Hoover, known by the Bureau as Agent P-138 .
|James Wormley Jones, aka Agent "800".|
With the goal of deporting Garvey, Hoover conspired with Edwin P. Kilroe; District Attorney for the county of New York. Hoover wrote a memo suggesting that investigators pursue the idea of prosecuting Garvey for fraud, in connection with his Black Star Line activities. Kilroe began an investigation into the activities of the UNIA, but found no evidence of wrong-doing or mismanagement. On October 14, 1919, Garvey was shot 4 times by his former employee, George Tyler. Tyler pulled out a gun and shot Garvey in the right leg and head. Tyler admitted that he had been sent to murder Garvey by Edwin Kilroe. The next day George Tyler, ‘committed suicide’ in a Harlem jail before being taken to court to be arraigned.
It is also undisputed that the NAACP offered "assistance" to the government in the signature of two NAACP officers on a group letter to the Attorney General urging a speedy prosecution of Garvey. Even the judge presiding over the mail fraud case, Julian Mack, was a board member of the NAACP, which instigated Garvey's deportation. Mack was the first President of the American Jewish Congress, and ironically was also president of the Zionist Organization of America from 1918 to 1921.
J .Edgar Hoover , on October 11, 1919, would write to his supervisor, “[u]nfortunately, however, he (Garvey) has not as yet violated any federal law whereby he could be proceeded against on the grounds of being an undesirable alien, from the point of view of deportation. It occurs to me, however, from the attached clipping that there might be some proceeding against him for fraud in connection with his Black Star Line propaganda and for this reason I am transmitting the communication to you for your appropriate attention.”
So, after years of persistence, on January 12, 1922, the FBI under J. Edgar Hoover arrested Garvey of mail fraud and stock irregularities related to the Black Star Line.
He was later deported in 1927. Garvey died of a stroke in London, England, 1940.
Garvey would go on to inspire the rise of Noble Drew Ali, The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, The Five Percent Nation of Gods and Earths, The Black Panthers and the Rastafarian movement and Hoover would work against them all – using the same old tactics with new generations of shameless black informants.
“Look for me in the whirlwind or the song of the storm; look for me all around you.” – Marcus Garvey